20 APRIL: RAW MILK CHEESE DAY
RAW CHEESE BOARD • MEET THE MAKER • RAW CHEESE EVENT
French classification board
If there’s one thing the French are German about, it’s cheese classification. Poetic and evocative it isn’t. It is inordinately useful. If you want to understand the practical differences between each cheese, how it is that their fabrication affects their texture and flavour, then the French cheese classification system is perhaps the best place to start.
Curd formation is that magical moment at which milk becomes cheese. With this board we are simply concentrating on how that curd is made and then what happens to it. Do other things affect the taste and quality of cheese? Of course. Here we are ignoring whether the milk comes from a Holstein-Friesian cow or a Nubian goat and indeed whether it comes from a cow grazing on a June flowered alpine pasture in bovine bliss or a stressed sheep in a shed chewing on February’s soggiest silage.
Sometimes a little simplification is helpful, though. If you are new to London and want to get from Canada Water to Shepard’s Bush then a tube map is far more useful than the Ordnance Survey’s best efforts. Similarly, the French Classification System, despite its restrictions and omissions, will best help you understand how the humble curd can be turned into anything from the most fluffy and fragile Chevre to the most dense and crystalline old Gouda.
This is the process of splitting milk into a delicate gelatinous solid and a thin cloudy liquid, curds and whey. So let’s start with milk. Milk is a stable emulsion of water, fat, protein, sugar (lactose), vitamins and minerals – everything a young mammal, or indeed a gluttonous old one, needs. The problem is that it is probably best drunk straight from the source, in a manner of speaking.
Untreated milk spoils rather quickly. The best way of thinking about the cheese making and aging process is as the controlled spoilage of milk. Nothing is preserved as such. When milk ‘goes off’ it goes through a process of continuous change due to the action of bacteria metabolising its constituent parts. This process, unchecked, renders the milk as dangerous as it is unpalatable. However, the cheese maker finely controls the very same process to turn milk into both something new and something that continuously changes throughout its lifetime. The crucial difference being that this controlled fermentation results in something delicious and hopefully non-fatal.
There are technically three ways of making curd. First, you can simply leave milk to spoil. Bacteria in the milk or its environment will start metabolising the sugar in the milk, lactose, to produce lactic acid in great quantities producing the characteristic sour smell – and if you are unlucky, taste – of rancid milk. The presence of this acid curdles the milk. The casein proteins present start to clump together as the pH of the solution plummets and these clumps float in a cloudy translucent liquid. The warmer the milk, up to a point, the faster this happens. Unfortunately, all sorts of other reactions happen as ‘bad bacteria’ do their work creating toxic, foul smelling and tasting chemicals. The other two methods are far more useful: Lactic coagulation and Enzymatic coagulation.
This is the simplest way of making curd. Add lemon juice or vinegar to warm milk and it will curdle almost immediately through the very same process described above. The acidity of the milk spikes and the proteins present clump together to form fragile protein matrixes, or curds. To make curds suitable for more robust cheeses, cheese makers use starter cultures, often lactobacilli and streptococci, to convert the lactose in the milk to lactic acid. In the absence of rennet (which we’ll come to next) a fair amount of lactic acid needs to be produced in order for the casein proteins in the milk to be encouraged to bind to one another; an acidity level anywhere from 0.4-0.5% (which is a pH level of 4.8-5.0, bearing in mind that a neutral pH is 7.0!)
This high level of acidity has two major effects on the resultant curd. Firstly, it produces a sour curd and ultimately a tart flavoured cheese. Lactic coagulated cheeses of all milk types tend to have a pronounced lactic or yoghurty tang on the palate. Secondly, lactic coagulation produces a very weak and slow forming curd – they can take anywhere up to a full day or two to form. The high concentration of acid causes much of the calcium, which is crucial to forming strong bonds between the proteins, to run off with the draining whey. As such, cheese makers must handle the curds very carefully. They cannot be cut too finely, heated too much or pressed. The resulting curds are always cut into large pieces and carefully drained and salted.
The cheeses made using this process require patience and a light touch but cheese makers are rewarded with something fresh tasting, fragile and beautiful with the potential for rich and balanced flavour. Take Epoisses, the quintessential stinky French cheese. A Burgundian classic, the delicate lactic coagulated curd takes up to 20 hours to form. The curd barely holds itself together and must be hand ladled into moulds to slowly drain for two days. It is salted and placed on racks to further dry. At this point the cheese is a tart and flaky unprepossessing puck but the cheesemongers wash the exterior in a mixture of brine and Marc de Bourgogne – a spirit made from the vine pressings left over from the production of Burgundy’s great wines – over the next 3 or 4 days. It takes great skill to keep the rind moist but not wet and to keep the salt and alcohol levels just so. This encourages a pungent peach coloured bacterial rind to grow around the outside of the cheese. The resulting brevibacterium linens mould transforms the cheese. It metabolises the nutrient rich flaky curd from the outside in, breaking the fats and proteins down to produce an earthy, meaty and molten ‘jacket’ reminiscent of a savoury egg custard. The perfect moment to eat an Époisses de Bourgogne is when this breakdown has advanced just far enough to leave a hint of the original fresh lactic core, which gives a burst of acidity to balance the rich and unctuous surrounding. Magic.
Perhaps surprisingly, this method of making cheese dates back thousands of years. Nomadic tribes in the Middle East transported milk across great distances in vessels made from the dried stomach of young goats. Time, warmth and agitation resulted in formation of curds and whey by the journey’s end. The first brave and possibly very hungry man or woman to taste this odd looking gelatinous semi-solid must have found something eminently edible. With some crude manipulation, perhaps draining and the addition of a little salt, this curd was both more delicious and kept a great deal longer than the original milk. Cheese was born.
We now understand that the crucial part of this process was in fact the vessel itself. Young mammals’ stomachs contain a number of enzymes required to break down their mothers’ milk; namely, rennin, pepsin and lipase. The most important of these being rennin. Any substance that contains this enzyme and is produced to be used in the cheese making process is called Rennet.
Rennin, like all enzymes, is a catalyst. Catalysts to do not cause chemical reactions like the formation of curd they simply facilitate them allowing the process to happen in less time and with less energy. So whilst curd can form by itself or simply with the addition of acid, rennet allows the reaction to take place much faster – in as little as 15-20 minutes – and at much lower levels of acidity – 0.15-0.17% - than lactic coagulation. Importantly, this lower acidity level leaves the calcium unmolested resulting in a stronger protein matrix. Ultimately this means a quick setting and robust curd. Not only does this result in more efficient curd production but also the curd itself is so much more versatile leaving myriad options open to the creative and ambitious cheese maker.
The curd can be left in large pieces like the Epoisses and allowed to break down with aid of surface flora like the Brie de Meaux of Ile de France or the Alsatian Munster. You simply have a less tart tasting starting point resulting in rich and relatively sweeter soft cheeses. However, the curd can also be manipulated to a far greater extent. This is a boon to cheese makers wanting to make longer lasting cheeses. Whey is the component of cheese that causes it to eventually go rancid so the more of it you can get rid of the longer the cheese will last. The tougher enzymatic coagulated curds can be finely milled and pressed to get rid of this liquid as is done with Cheddar or the French Salers. It can also be cooked and then pressed resulting in hard, smooth, nutty and meltable cheeses like the venerable Comté. It can even be inoculated with moulds like penicillium roqueforti, pressed and pierced to allow bluing to occur.
Enzymatic or rennet coagulated curds have a great deal of potential. Lactic coagulated cheeses can only become a fresh cheese like the Sariette de Banon, a bloomy rind soft cheese like the Couer de Neufchâtel or Brie de Melun or a soft washed rind cheese like the Epoisses or Ami du Chambertin. However, the addition of rennet in the cheese making process allows for the production of blue cheeses like Roquefort, pressed and uncooked cheeses such as the hard Salers or the softer earthy St. Nectaire, pressed and semi cooked cheeses like the Abondance and pressed and cooked cheeses such as Emmental and Gruyère. That is, in addition to fresh, bloomy soft brie-like and pungent washed soft cheeses.
The French classification maps exactly this dizzying variety of curd production and treatment. It starts with how the curd is made, whether by delicate lactic coagulation or efficient rennet coagulation and goes on to explore what can happen to each type of curd once it is made. In this board you will taste each production type exploring the effect each one of these technical processes has on the flavour and texture of France’s great cheeses. Enjoy!
Lactic (Acid) - Fresh - Rove de Garrigues
- Bloomy - Chaource
- Enriched - Brillat Savarin
- Washed - Epoisses
Enzymatic (Rennet) - Soft - No rind - Feta
- Bloomy - Camembert
- Washed - Munster
- Blue - Cavities - Roquefort
- Marbled - Bleu de Gex
- Pressed - Uncooked - Gently Pressed - St. Nectaire
- Firm - Mimolette
- Milled - Salers
Semi-cooked - With Eyes - Appenzeller
- Without Eyes - Abondance
Cooked - With eyes - Emmental Français (Grand Cru)
- Without eyes - Beaufort Chalet d’Alpage
Rove de Garrigues, Languedoc - Lactic coagulated, fresh
A fresh rindless goats cheese from the south west of France. The Rove de Garrigues has a bracing citric tartness and herbal peppery finish.
Brillat Savarin, Normandy - Lactic coagulated, enriched
The Brillat is a cow milk bloomy rind cheese enriched with cows cream. This northern French classic has a rich texture with light flavour; the added cream sweetens the lactic sharpness.
Chaource, Champagne - Lactic coagulated, bloomy rind
Bloomy rinded, soft lactic coagulated cheese with a characteristic yoghurty sourness tempered by the earthy contribution of the fungal bloomy rind.
Epoisses, Burgundy - Lactic coagulated, washed rind
A pungent soft cheese washed in Marc de Bourgogne, a local brandy. This time the lactic freshness in the center is balanced with an oozing meaty richness supplied by the orange bacterial rind.
Camembert, Normandy - Enzyme coagulated, bloomy rind
A rich bloomy rind cheese from northern France, the core has a fresh fruitiness to it that balances beautifully with the fungal earthiness of the rind.
Munster, Alsace - Enzyme coagulated, washed rind
The cheese is washed in brine and Gewürztraminer, a fruity white wine made in the region. The pate is floral, relatively sweet and fruity that is complimented by the rich and complex meatiness of the sticky washed rind.
Roquefort, Rouergue – Enzyme coagulated, blue, cavities
A classic open textured blue. The tangy metallic flavour of the blue mould acts as the perfect foil to the rich fatty sweetness of the sheep milk cheese.
Bleu de Gex, Haut Jura – Enzyme coagulated, blue, marbled
The richness of the smooth pate plays host to the unique metallic bitterness of the penicillium glaucum.
Saint Nectaire, Auvergne – Enzyme coagulated, pressed and uncooked
A semi-soft cheese from perhaps France’s greatest cheese producing region. St. Nectaire has a soft cobnut-like sweetness to the center while the dark fungal rind gives a profound earthy quality with the aroma of pea shoots.
Mimolette, Flandres - Enzyme coagulated, pressed and uncooked, firm
Nord produces this unique Gouda style cheese. Like a Gouda the curd is washed to ensure as much sweetness as possible but the small size and pitted rind combine to accelerate the aging process producing a dense salty sweet hard cheese.
Salers d’Estive, Auvergne – Enzyme coagulated, pressed and uncooked, milled curd
Salers is made by pressing finely milled curd to produce a semi hard cheese not dissimilar to the English Lancashire or Cheddar. Sometimes described as the sourdough of cheeses, the starter culture is present in the wooden vats the milk is initially pooled in. This gives the aged cheese a subtle yeasty bready flavour.
Apenzeller, Appenzell, Switzerland - Enzyme coagulated, pressed and semi-cooked, with eyelets
A rich brine washed hard cheese with flavours ranging from roasted nuts to sweet spice and tangy meatiness.
Abondance, Savoie - Enzyme coagulated, pressed and semi-cooked, without eyelets
High mountain cheese with a creamy rich texture and a melting fruity flavour. The light heating and pressing of the curd results in a smooth and slightly bouncy pate with a light but complex flavour.
Beaufort Chalet d’Alpage, Savoie - Enzyme coagulated, pressed and cooked, without eyelets
Described by the famous French food critic, Brillat Savarin, as ‘the prince of Gruyères’. The curds that make Beaufort are cooked at a slightly lower temperature than for Comté allowing the floral qualities of the summer alpine milk to come through. Something special.
Emmental Français (Grand Cru), Savoie - Enzyme coagulated, pressed and cooked, with eyelets
The instantly evocative holes are due to the propioni shermanii bacteria added with the starter culture. These bacteria metabolise the remaining lactic acid in the cheese producing carbon dioxide causing the aging cheeses to rise like bread.